Vegetable fats (oils)
Vegetable fats are obtained from plants that accumulate fat in their fruits, seeds, or other parts. These fats contain, for example, oil palm kernels, coconut, oilseeds such as rape, soya, sunflower, sesame, peanut, and the like.
The vast majority of plant-derived fats have a very good fatty acid composition from a health point of view because they contain polyunsaturated fatty acids that have a more beneficial effect on our health than animal fats. Exceptions are, for example, coconut and palm kernel fat, in which saturated fatty acids, which are considered unfit for health, prevail.
Nutrition is a set of biochemical processes by which organisms accept organic and inorganic substances necessary for their life from the outside. In a broader sense, nutrition refers to the doctrine of some aspects of metabolism, in particular, nutrient intake, purpose, transformation and use.
Human nutrition is dependent on the consumption of food in the same or modified state. They may be of vegetable, animal or another origin. Special categories are foods for special nutritional supplements or dietary supplements. Their quality can be improved by additives such as dyes, preservatives, emulsifiers or sweeteners, or otherwise enriched with, for example, vitamins or trace elements. The energy value of foods is usually expressed in kilocalories or kilojoules.
Healthy nutrition is one that keeps the body in balance (homeostasis). To prevent chronic diseases such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes or cancer, it is important that the food consumed contains a balanced amount of nutrients, sufficient water, especially fruit and vegetables. Healthy nutrition requires a balanced intake of essential nutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats), supplementary nutrients (vitamins, trace elements, and fibre) and sufficient water to prevent intoxication of the organism by overuse of a certain substance.
Vitamins, with some exceptions, heterotrophic organisms are not able to produce themselves and therefore have to obtain them through diet. Some vitamins can be obtained by metabolism by provitamins; for example, the body's ability to obtain vitamin A from provitamin A. Vitamins are essential for the growth and viability of all heterotrophic organisms. In the human body, they are primarily the catalysts of biochemical reactions.
Depending on the solubility, we divide the vitamins into fat-soluble and water-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins include, for example, the B-complex group, which often serves as coenzymes in important metabolic processes. Another well-known vitamin in this group is vitamin C, which is needed to form connective tissues, promotes iron absorption, stimulates white blood cell production, bone, tooth and cartilage development, and generally promotes growth. Most animals and plants can produce this vitamin themselves and need no additions. The human organism is very "special" in this sense because it cannot naturally produce vitamin C. The excess of water-soluble vitamins is in most cases not harmful because it is excreted in the urine. However, fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) do not work and their excess can cause organism poisoning. A particular vitamin is vitamin F, which is sometimes classified as an essential fatty acid. The function of vitamin E is not exactly known, but, together with vitamin C, it probably protects phospholipids in cell membranes against oxidation. Vitamin preparations, called antioxidants, often also contain vitamin E.
In the absence of vitamins, so-called hypovitaminosis, disturbances in the function of the organism may occur, or even very serious diseases. So far, the recommended vitamin doses are controversial. According to some nutritional experts, the RDA doses are sufficient, but there is also the opinion that these doses are too low and some even believe that large doses of vitamins will boost their positive effects. The research is still ongoing and mainly the appropriate dosage of vitamins C and E is being sought.
The nutrient is a substance that an organism needs and receives (from the outside) for its nutrition and development. In the narrower sense, nutrients are organic substances with the higher energy content that provide heterotrophic organisms with energy and building materials from the outside. Basic nutrients include sugars (carbohydrates), fats (lipids), proteins (proteins).
Carbohydrates are one of the basic natural substances in plant and animal organisms. Plants and other autofototrophic organisms can produce them by a process called photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide using solar energy. Other organisms are dependent on their dietary intake. In the short term, they can be synthesized from amino acids and glycerol.
Carbohydrates have important functions in organisms:
- source and short-term energy supply (glucose, fructose)
- stock (starch, glycogen, inulin)
- building material (cellulose, chitin)
- components of some more complex substances (nucleic acids, hormones, coenzymes).
According to the number of sugar units, we divide carbohydrates into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides are basic carbohydrates that can no longer be simplified. They are the basic building block of all the more complex carbohydrates - oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. In general, carbohydrates are inaccurately called sugars, but as sugars, we only label sugars of sweet taste, ie most monosaccharides. Carbohydrates are the most widely used natural substances. These are glucose, fructose (fruit sugar) and galactose (sugar in breast milk).
Oligosaccharides are sugars composed of several (2 -10) monosaccharide subunits. They have similar properties to monosaccharides. Of the oligosaccharides, disaccharides (composed of two monosaccharide subunits) are particularly important. They are water-soluble and usually have a sweet taste. These include maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and sucrose (beet, cane sugar).
In nature, these substances are widespread. The most common representatives of polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin. The main starch sources are potatoes, rice, wheat and corn. Glycogen is a reserve sugar in animals. Cellulose forms the major part of the plant tissue and is one of the main components of wood (together with lignin). Man and other animals cannot metabolize cellulose because they do not have the appropriate enzymes
Metabolism is a set of all enzymatic reactions (so-called metabolic pathways) in which substances and energies are transformed into cells and living organisms. According to the direction of the ongoing change, which is happening with the complex organic molecule, we divide the metabolism into anabolism (construction process, biosynthesis) and catabolism (decomposition process). According to an alternative definition, metabolism is energy exchange, nutrient uptake and their processing.
Glycemic index (GI)
A glycemic index indicates the rate of glucose utilization from a particular food. Glucose is thought to have a glycemic index of 100. Many factors affect the glycemic index, such as fibre content, preparation process, cooking time, and the like. GI food cannot be taken as the sole factor affecting a glycemic response. Because glucose absorption rate into the blood also affects the total amount of digestion in the stomach. For practice, this means that from foods with a lower GI, the body can better obtain and use the glucose that these foods contain. Also, foods with low GI do not burden the body with large fluctuations in blood glucose levels, which may contribute to the development of type II diabetes mellitus (folk age diabetes). Although the glycemic index is sometimes used as an indicator of insulin release to the blood, some foods with a low glycemic index release much insulin; for this purpose, it is better to take into account the insulin index. The index was created by Dr David J. Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto in 1981.
means supplementation, if there is a deficiency of some substances..
Stress is a functional state of a living organism where the organism is exposed to extraordinary conditions (stressors) and its subsequent defence reactions, which aim to maintain homeostasis and prevent damage or death to the organism. Types of stress - Eustress - a positive burden that adequately stimulates individuals to higher or better performance, - Distress - an excessive burden that can harm an individual and cause illness or even death. Psychological reactions include adaptation, anxiety and depression. If stress leads to higher mental or physical performance, it is eustress. This kind of stress is one of the main motivating elements of human action. However, if the effect of stress lasts too long or exceeds a certain limit (distress), it can lead to decisions that result in anxiety (escape) or depressive (retreat) behaviour. Stress Physical Response - A stress-assessing brain not only controls the behaviour that aims to overcome this burden but at the same time raises physiological responses in the body allowing short-term activation of escape or combat reserves. The stress response leads to the activation of mechanisms that allow high-performance in the event of danger, which is due to the use of the body's reserves. This purposeful reaction allows the survival of the individual in nature. But the same reaction is triggered even if a modern man is exposed to psychological pressures that are not a real threat to physical existence. The way of life often leads to the fact that one cannot react to stress by fighting or escaping. If he is unable to cope with the psychological pressure for various reasons, he goes into the stage of distress, when the originally useful defence mechanisms begin to harm the body. Long-term psychological problems are precisely this mechanism that causes various health problems that first contribute to reduced quality of life. Later they are involved in the development of diseases that pose a real threat to life. The diseases that cause psychological discomfort and strong emotions are collectively called psychosomatic, which reflects the fact that the state of the soul (psyche) and the body (soma) interact. The widespread view that people with psychosomatic disorders do not need medical care because they are not really ill is wrong.
Consequences of long-term stress: We are currently undergoing simulated stress situations that do not lead to life-threatening, but the human psyche understands them, which is why it triggers a number of these life-saving mechanisms. But if these situations are constantly recurring and persistent, they become "stiffen muscles" in the short term. In the long term, increased glucose release is one of the factors of the second type of diabetes mellitus (so-called elderly diabetes), often increased pressure is one of the causes of sustained elevated pressure (hypertension). This brings us to today's most widespread civilization disease, which is coronary heart disease, the most feared manifestation of which is myocardial infarction. Stress also causes reduced gastric mucosal resistance to external influences, reduced blood supply to the mucosa, and this may result in a so-called stress ulcer of the stomach. Other possible consequences of stress include increased risk of asthma.
For living organisms, it is the ability to maintain a stable internal environment, which is a prerequisite for their functioning and existence, even when external conditions change. An example of organic homeostasis is the maintenance of acid-base balance or body temperature.
Fibre is an important component of food that is difficult to digest by itself. There are two types of fibre: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibre has the ability to absorb water, swell, and ferment in the digestive tract, so it can be a source of energy. It regulates the digestion of fats and carbohydrates, binds water to itself and thus gains volume. This leads to a feeling of satiety. For the most part, it is a nutrient for the microbial flora in the digestive tract, thus acting as a so-called prebiotic. The insoluble fibre in the digestive tract does not ferment, not an energy source. It increases the volume of intestinal contents and shortens the amount of food left there. It is particularly beneficial in the large intestine where, due to the increase in stool volume, the waste products that are produced during digestion are diluted. These are then easier to leave the digestive tract, which is exposed to potentially hazardous substances for a shorter period of time.
Soluble fibre is found in many kinds of foods including - legumes (peas, soybeans, beans)
- flax capsules and seeds (source of both soluble and insoluble fibre)
- oats, rye, barley
- some fruits (especially apples and bananas) and berries
- some vegetables like broccoli and carrots
- root vegetables
- potatoes (their skin contains insoluble fibre)
psyllium seeds (only about né soluble fibre).
Sources of insoluble fibre include the following - wholemeal foods containing mainly husks
- flax seeds (source of both soluble and insoluble fibre)
- grain husks, bran
- nuts and seeds
- vegetables such as green beans, cauliflower, zucchini, celery
- skins of certain fruits and tomatoes.
Among the richest sources in fibre are legumes, nuts and seeds, bran, plum fruit and Asian pear.
Although it is used in the same way as many kinds of cereal, it is not one of the true cereals, it belongs to the group of pseudo-cereals. This plant is an old cultural crop originating from the Andes mountains in Bolivia, Peru and Chile, where it was domesticated and 5,000 years ago it was a food of the Incas living on mountain plateaus and hilly valleys. The term "quinoa" means "mother grain" in the Inca language, with the colonization of Europeans declining, its cultivation being replaced by cereals, preserved only in remote areas of South America. During growth, fresh leaves are eaten in various salads, and ripe seeds are mainly used. They have flour, which has excellent properties in conjunction with corn or corn, for baking bread and various biscuits. Whole seeds are used for mashing, soups thickening and cereal making, as well as "chica". Chilean flour does not contain gluten, it is suitable for celiac patients. Seeds are a good source of some vitamins - thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid, beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C, contain 60% starch, 23% essential proteins, 5% carbohydrates, 4 to 9% fats, their energy value is 374 kcal / 1566 kJ per 100 g.
Today, the Chilean mullet is valued mainly because of its high nutritional value and the United Nations has classified it as one of the crops containing a very high percentage of protein. NASA ranked it as a suitable crop for a research program whose results would allow to support and sustain human life during long human-controlled space flights. It is also one of the Fair Trade crops, which, among other things, guarantees a fair price covering production and living costs.
These are small Hispanic sage seeds (salvia hispanica). Originally from Latin and Central America. In the past, chia seeds were the main food of the mythical Aztecs. These Americans excelled in excellent physical fitness and health. Chia seeds also contributed significantly to this. Together with beans, corn and amaranth, it was one of the cornerstones of the Aztec diet. Chia seeds, or runner seeds, also have enormous hydrophilic properties. They can absorb so much water that they increase their volume up to 12x. Thanks to them, the body is perfectly hydrated from the inside, which has a beneficial effect on any physical strain. They contain proteins, good carbohydrates and also fats. They are a source of Omega-3 fatty acids that have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. Chia seeds are a rich source of fibre, calcium and antioxidants. If you are looking for a natural source of iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium and other important nutrients, chia seeds are for you. According to many experts, chia seeds have a positive effect on the cardiovascular system. Their regular use will prevent many diseases. Just 2-3 tablespoons of chia seed a day and follow the principles of the rational diet.
BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate)
is the amount of energy released in the quiescent state in a temperature-neutral fasting environment. The energy output in this state is only due to the work of vital organs, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and the rest of the nervous system, the liver, the kidneys, the genital organs, the muscles, and the skin. BMR decreases with age and muscle loss. Conversely, it increases through cardiovascular exercise and muscle mass growth. Disease, food and drink consumed ambient temperature and stress can affect resting energy expenditure.
Visceral (organ) fat
Visceral fat is found in and around the inside of our organs to protect them. Therefore, it is sometimes also called organ fat. If we have this fat excess, it is much more dangerous than subcutaneous fat. Visceral fat is very closely associated with hyperlipidemia, which is a higher level of fat in the blood. This can lead to serious chronic diseases, especially diabetes and acute diseases such as heart attack and stroke. The insidiousness of visceral fat is that an individual often does not know that he is suffering from his excess. While subcutaneous fat shows us too much excess, visceral fat is hidden. Only a larger waist circumference may be a visible signal. Interestingly, the amount of visceral fat is not dependent on the amount of subcutaneous fat in the body. Visceral fat can be measured by InBody.
InBody is an invaluable aid in determining the effectiveness and compliance of the reduction regime or just adjusting meals and increasing physical activity. We will find out whether a person eats regularly, whether he/she loses muscle mass and vice versa, whether he/she reduces fat and increases the muscle mass ratio. No classical weight tells anyone. Thus, it cannot be mistaken that a person who is trying to eat according to the principles of a healthy diet and adds regular physical activity does not lose weight as he sees no change in weight or even gains weight. Mostly it is an increase in muscle mass that will replace the fat part.
Regular InBody examinations are very motivating because we see all the changes that occur in the body when eating habits change and physical activity increases.
Biogenic elements are elements necessary for life, so-called life-giving. They are divided into macrobiogenic (with a proportion of> 0.005%) and microbiogenic.
-bound in molecules (carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur)
-free ions (potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, chlorine)
BMI (Body Mass Index)
Body mass index is a number used as an indicator of underweight, normal body weight, overweight and obesity, allowing a statistical comparison of body weight for people of varying height. The index is calculated by dividing the weight of that person by the square of its height. In general, a BMI below 18.5 is considered to be underweight, which may be a symptom of some eating disorder or other health problem, while a BMI of over 25 is considered overweight and above 30 a symptom of obesity. These limits apply to adults over 20 years of age.
WHR (Waist Hip Ratio)
It is used as an indicator of body fat distribution. There are two types -1. male (apple, central) - fat is stored in the abdominal area, the type is less favourable than female, 2. female (pear, peripheral) - fat is stored in the buttocks and thighs.
WHR = waist circumference (cm) / hip circumference (cm)
The metabolic type is determined by the genetic disposition of the individual ability of each organism to metabolize different foods into energy and building units. We have three basic types - carbohydrate, protein and mixed.
Goji (Kou-qi) Chinese fruits
Chinese goji fruits are known as Kou-qi and are popular as a nutritional supplement. The decoction of fruits and bark from the wolfberry root is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Every Chinese person knows the Kou-qi fruits very well and will certainly tell you that they are especially suitable for middle-aged men. But not just for them. According to traditional medicine, the Kou-chi has a sweet taste, a neutral nature and act on the liver and kidney meridians, further nourish the blood, yin and yang abound, makes stronger the liver and kidneys, moisturize the lungs and also improve the vision whose sharpness according to traditional Chinese medicine depends precisely on liver condition. Middle-aged men (and not only in China) often need to strengthen other liver and kidneys, especially if they have been unintentionally exhausted (eg through frequent sex or alcohol abuse).
An indispensable food supplement - Kou-chi is literally sold in every corner in China: in pharmacies, in the markets, but also in supermarkets. For the Chinese, it is an absolutely indispensable food supplement that women will eagerly reach. Indeed, Kucchi fruits also slow down ageing. And which woman wouldn't want to be young forever?
Kou-chi is added to a variety of foods, or a decoction is prepared. Traditional Chinese medicine also uses them in therapeutic formulas for the treatment of yin deficiency diseases, which are accompanied by thirst, including, for example, tuberculosis or diabetes in their early days, dizziness, impaired vision and chronic cough. These fruits are also recommended for the treatment of psoriasis or impotence.
The wisdom of the ancient Chinese has been confirmed by recent research on Goji berries. It has been found that cocci promote the body's immune response and reduce the number of antigens associated with allergic diseases. For this reason, they are also used for the treatment of psoriasis (often a condition related to lack of yin). Goji also enhances phagocytosis of the reticuloendothelial system, improves immunity and hematopoiesis, and also reduces blood pressure.
Also, the aphrodisiac properties of goji fruits have been proven to some extent. Indeed, when men who had problems with potency used the Kashchi or liqueur prepared from them, the level of male sex hormones in their blood increased, and patients were more vital. About 6-18 g of dried fruit per day is recommended to prepare the decoction.
Pickles (Fermented vegetables)
For pickles is typical fermentation with the help of lactic acid bacteria. They have always been part of the diet of our ancestors until the food industry displaced them. Fortunately, people are beginning to realize the value of home products and return to them again. Pickles contain a large amount of vit.C, B1, B2, B6, K2, enzymes, minerals - magnesium, potassium, fluorine, lactobacilli and lactic acid. If you take 2 tablespoons of this miracle daily, you won't be surprised by the flu or cold ;-).
You can use any vegetable (white and red cabbage, onion, carrot, beetroot, parsley, horseradish, but also zucchini, cucumber, tomato, cauliflower, radish, radish or cabbage). Cut the vegetables into any smaller pieces or grate, add salt or caraway seeds, mix well until they release the juice and pack into a jar or special pickles container. It is important that the vegetables are completely submerged, if their own juice is not enough, add (preferably boiled) cold water. We take care of good hygiene so that pickles do not get mouldy over time. Load with a spring or something fantasy and ferment for 3-5 days at room temperature. Then close well and put in the refrigerator to stop fermentation. This is how vegetables last for up to 3 months.
Ghee - Clarified butter
Clarified butter, known as ghee in India, is a traditional butter preparation.
It is prepared by slowly boiling in a boiling water bath of butter to remove water and other impurities until only clear fat of yellow colour remains, which has a higher point of burning (200-250 ° C) than the original butter (150-180) ° C) and much longer durability even outside the refrigerator, where it is practically eternal. Properly stored in closed containers in a cool, dry place will last for months.
The clarified butter is used for frying or baking, where not only the aforementioned properties are appreciated, but also its slightly sweet, slightly nutty taste and aroma.
There are still places in the world that have not been touched by human hands. Examples include the majestic Himalayas with their rich salt deposits. Unlike the conventional salt kitchen or sea salt, it stores up to 84 different minerals in its most natural and pure form. Thanks to its optimum composition, it is no longer necessary to enrich it, which is not the case with ordinary sodium chloride, which very often contains anti-caking and anti-caking agents. As for sea salt, its purity while contaminating the sea is questionable.
Bulgur is a designation for pre-cooked broken wholemeal wheat that is used as part of a meal. It is produced by washing the wheat, drying it, crushing it into smaller pieces and sorting the sieves according to the size of the fractions into differently coarse fractions. Bulgur is already pre-cooked (as opposed to simply crushed wheat referred to as scrap), and this facilitates its further use in the kitchen. It is often enough to just swell it in water and mix it with other ingredients without subsequent heat treatment. Bulgur is best known for its tabouli salad in Lebanon, but can also be used in a variety of vegetable or meat dishes (pilaf, falafel, kibbeh). In Czech cuisine, bulgur is used for stuffing, burgers, soups or as a side dish to meats. Bulgur is easily digestible and has a favourable nutritional composition because it contains fibre, vitamins and minerals.
By crushing it, drying it or pressing it produces a green powder that is mixed with water or fruit juice. The young barley contains vitamins B, C, E, H, K, choline or beta-carotene. It also contains up to 70 different minerals and traces elements. Young barley promotes digestion, positively affects blood count, accelerates tissue regeneration and provides antioxidant protection.
Gluten is a mixture of two proteins, gliadin and glutenin, which are found together with starch in the endosperm of seeds of some cereals, especially wheat, rye and barley. In the case of wheat, even up to 80% of protein content. It is an important part of traditional European cuisine, the quality and quantity of gluten give the quality of wheat flour and the quality of the dough made from it. Good gluten gives the dough elasticity and rubberiness, which is also reflected in the resulting pastry. The amount of gluten in the flour is given in per cent, the gluten quality is given by the dimensionless gluten index. Part of the population shows gluten intolerance, the so-called celiac disease. Gluten is also one of the potential allergens. In the case of celiac disease and often also in gluten-allergic persons, a gluten-free diet should be observed.
Tempeh is a Javanese food product that is made of soy and is produced by fermentation. Especially popular on the island of Java, where it is the main source of protein. Like tofu, tempeh is made from soybeans; however, tempeh is a completely different product with a different nutritional composition and structure. Thanks to the fermentation, tempeh not only receives a high proportion of proteins, fibres and vitamins, but also a more intense aroma. Because of its nutritional value, the product is used in vegetarian cuisine, sometimes as a meat substitute. But tempeh was referred to as "Javanese meat" long before people discovered its nutritional value.
Couscous is one of the basic foods of North African cuisine. It is a boiled and shaped bead of wheat, barley or millet. Couscous is not cooked in the preparation, but it is only watered with boiling water. Couscous is the main ingredient or side-dish of many different vegetables such as tomatoes, carrots, pumpkins, zucchini, cabbage and most of the meat, be it poultry, beef, lamb, or even fish. Typical spices for couscous are ras el-Hanout and harissa is used for a sharper flavour. Cold couscous is mainly served as a seafood salad or used to make taboules. It is also suitable for preparing sweet foods such as milk, raisins or almonds.
Starch is a polysaccharide composed of two different polysaccharides: amylose and amylopectin, consisting of several thousand to tens of thousands of glucose molecules. In addition to glucose, starch contains lipids, proteins and about 25-35% water in small amounts. Starch is not alcoholically fermentable, but only enzymatically (in the digestive system of animals including humans) degrades to fermentable carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide with a stock function. Particularly rich in starch are potatoes, bananas, cereals and tapioca. According to the raw materials from which it is made, we distinguish potato starch, corn starch, wheat starch, rice starch and others. Getting starch is mechanical - the raw material is crushed and the starch is extracted from it.
Tofu is a food made by precipitating soy milk with plaster (or other means). In Asian cuisine, tofu is used in both savoury and sweet foods and is especially appreciated for its ability to take on the taste of other ingredients used. In Europe and America, tofu is mainly associated with vegetarianism and veganism, as it can be used as a meat substitute due to its high protein content. Flavour flavours can be flavoured to various flavours, such as vegetables, seaweed or herbs; There are also tofu smoked, marinated, etc. on the market. Healthy nutrition manufacturers supply other products or semi-products derived from tofu or made by similar technology such as burgers, spreads, or sausages.